# How to constrain movement within the area of a circle

This might be more a geometry related question, but I'm trying to constrain a controller within an area of a circle. I know I have to touch the Math.sin() and Math.cos() methods, but my attemps so far have been fruitless so far.

Here is the jsfiddle: So far I've been able to constrain it to an invisible square. http://jsfiddle.net/maGVK/

## Answers:

So I finally was able to complete this with a bit of everyone's help.

``````var pointerEl = document.getElementById("pointer");
var canvasEl = document.getElementById("canvas");
var canvas = {
width: canvasEl.offsetWidth,
height: canvasEl.offsetHeight,
top: canvasEl.offsetTop,
left: canvasEl.offsetLeft
};
canvas.center = [canvas.left + canvas.width / 2, canvas.top + canvas.height / 2];
canvas.radius = canvas.width / 2;

window.onmousemove = function(e) {
var result = limit(e.x, e.y);
pointer.style.left = result.x + "px";
pointer.style.top = result.y + "px";
}

function limit(x, y) {
var dist = distance([x, y], canvas.center);
if (dist <= canvas.radius) {
return {x: x, y: y};
}
else {
x = x - canvas.center[0];
y = y - canvas.center[1];
var radians = Math.atan2(y, x)
return {
x: Math.cos(radians) * canvas.radius + canvas.center[0],
y: Math.sin(radians) * canvas.radius + canvas.center[1]
}
}
}

function distance(dot1, dot2) {
var x1 = dot1[0],
y1 = dot1[1],
x2 = dot2[0],
y2 = dot2[1];
return Math.sqrt(Math.pow(x1 - x2, 2) + Math.pow(y1 - y2, 2));
}
``````

You can see the result here:

http://jsfiddle.net/7Asn6/

``````var pointerEl = document.getElementById("pointer");
var canvasEl = document.getElementById("canvas");
var canvas = {
width: canvasEl.offsetWidth,
height: canvasEl.offsetHeight,
top: canvasEl.offsetTop,
left: canvasEl.offsetLeft
};
canvas.center = [canvas.left + canvas.width / 2, canvas.top + canvas.height / 2];
canvas.radius = canvas.width / 2;

window.onmousemove = function(e) {
var result = limit(e.x, e.y);
if (!result.limit) {
pointer.style.left = result.x + "px";
pointer.style.top = result.y + "px";
}
}

function limit(x, y) {
var dist = distance([x, y], canvas.center);
if (dist <= canvas.radius) {
return {x: x, y: y};
} else {
return {limit: true};
}
}

function distance(dot1, dot2) {
var x1 = dot1[0],
y1 = dot1[1],
x2 = dot2[0],
y2 = dot2[1];
return Math.sqrt(Math.pow(x1 - x2, 2) + Math.pow(y1 - y2, 2));
}
``````

this could do the work, though the movement is not smooth....that will need more geometry knowledge...
fiddle: http://jsfiddle.net/cRxMa/

This arithmetic is trivial as long as you normalize each data point (prospective position), which i have tried to do in the function below:

``````function locatePoint(canvas_size, next_position) {
// canvas_size & next_position are both 2-element arrays
// (w, h) & (x, y)
dist = function(x, y) {
return Math.sqrt(Math.pow(x, 2) + Math.pow(y, 2));
};
x = next_position[0];
y = next_position[1];
rescaledX = x/(canvas_size[0]/2);
rescaledY = y/(canvas_size[1]/2);
if (distance(x, y) <= 1) {
// the base case; position is w/in the circle
}
else {
// position is outside the circle, so perhaps
// do something like random select a new position, then
// call this function again (recursively) passing in
// that new position
}
}
``````

so in the simple diagram below, i have just inscribed a unit circle (r=1) inside a square whose sides are r*2. Your canvas dimensions do not have to be square though. To further simplify the calculation, you only need to consider one of the four quadrants--the upper right quadrant, let's say. The reason is that the Euclidean distance formula squares each coordinate value, so negative values become positive.

Put another way, the simplest way is to imagine a circle inscribed in your canvas and whose center is also the center of your canvas (so (0, 0) is the center not the upper left-hand corner); next, both canvas and circle are shrunk until the circle has radius = 1. Hopefully i have captured this in the function above.

Hi and thanks for sharing your solution.

Your jsfiddle helps me a lot to constraint the movement of a rotation handle.

Here's my solution using jQuery :

``````function getBall(xVal, yVal, dxVal, dyVal, rVal, colorVal) {
var ball = {
x: xVal,
lastX: xVal,
y: yVal,
lastY: yVal,
dx: dxVal,
dy: dyVal,
r: rVal,
color: colorVal,
normX: 0,
normY: 0
};

return ball;
}

var canvas = document.getElementById("myCanvas");
var xLabel = document.getElementById("x");
var yLabel = document.getElementById("y");
var dxLabel = document.getElementById("dx");
var dyLabel = document.getElementById("dy");

var ctx = canvas.getContext("2d");

var containerR = 200;
canvas.width = containerR * 2;
canvas.height = containerR * 2;
canvas.style["border-radius"] = containerR + "px";

var balls = [
getBall(containerR, containerR * 2 - 30, 2, -2, 20, "#0095DD"),
getBall(containerR, containerR * 2 - 50, 3, -3, 30, "#DD9500"),
getBall(containerR, containerR * 2 - 60, -3, 4, 10, "#00DD95"),
getBall(containerR, containerR * 2 / 5, -1.5, 3, 40, "#DD0095")
];

function draw() {
ctx.clearRect(0, 0, canvas.width, canvas.height);

for (var i = 0; i < balls.length; i++) {
var curBall = balls[i];
ctx.beginPath();
ctx.arc(curBall.x, curBall.y, curBall.r, 0, Math.PI * 2);
ctx.fillStyle = curBall.color;
ctx.fill();
ctx.closePath();
curBall.lastX = curBall.x;
curBall.lastY = curBall.y;
curBall.x += curBall.dx;
curBall.y += curBall.dy;
var dx = curBall.x - containerR;
var dy = curBall.y - containerR;
var distanceFromCenter = Math.sqrt(dx * dx + dy * dy);

if (distanceFromCenter >= containerR - curBall.r) {
var normalMagnitude = distanceFromCenter;
var normalX = dx / normalMagnitude;
var normalY = dy / normalMagnitude;
var tangentX = -normalY;
var tangentY = normalX;
var normalSpeed = -(normalX * curBall.dx + normalY * curBall.dy);
var tangentSpeed = tangentX * curBall.dx + tangentY * curBall.dy;
curBall.dx = normalSpeed * normalX + tangentSpeed * tangentX;
curBall.dy = normalSpeed * normalY + tangentSpeed * tangentY;
}

xLabel.innerText = "x: " + curBall.x;
yLabel.innerText = "y: " + curBall.y;
dxLabel.innerText = "dx: " + curBall.dx;
dyLabel.innerText = "dy: " + curBall.dy;
}
requestAnimationFrame(draw);
}

draw();``````
``canvas { background: #eee; }``
``````<div id="x"></div>
<div id="y"></div>
<div id="dx"></div>
<div id="dy"></div>
<canvas id="myCanvas"></canvas>``````

Hope this help someone.

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