Short answer: No.
This shows how to get the underlying OS/platform, Depending on exactly what you're looking for, this may not work. It's possible via other methods, like creating an ActiveX object and using that. However, this requires additional steps on the user end (like installing/authorizing ActiveX).
I think this is a security feature, separating the system from the browser, therefore it can be difficult (or impossible, depending on your requirements).
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