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Nothing compares to extjs in terms of community size and presence on StackOverflow. Despite previous controversy, Ext JS now has a GPLv3 open source license. Its learning curve is long, but it can be quite rewarding once learned. Ext JS lacks a Material Design theme, and the team has repeatedly refused to release the source code on GitHub. For mobile, one must use the separate Sencha Touch library.
Have in mind also that,
That said, below are a number of Ext JS alternatives currently available.
Blueprint is a React-based UI toolkit developed by big data analytics company Palantir in TypeScript, and "optimized for building complex data-dense interfaces for desktop applications". Actively developed on GitHub as of May 2019, with comprehensive documentation. Components range from simple (chips, toast, icons) to complex (tree, data table, tag input with autocomplete, date range picker. No accordion or resizer.
Blueprint targets modern browsers (Chrome, Firefox, Safari, IE 11, and Microsoft Edge) and is licensed under a modified Apache license.
Minimal GitHub presence, but includes the library code, and the documentation (which still needs major improvements). Webix suffers from a having a small team and a lack of marketing. However, they have been responsive to user feedback, both on GitHub and on their forum.
The library was lean (128Kb gzip+minified for all 55 widgets as of ~2015), faster than ExtJS, dojo and others, and the design is pleasant-looking. The current version of Webix (v6, as of Nov 2018) got heavier (400 - 676kB minified but NOT gzipped).
react-md - MIT-licensed Material Design UI components library for React. Responsive, accessible. Implements components from simple (buttons, cards) to complex (sortable tables, autocomplete, tags input, calendars). One lead author, ~1900 GitHub stars.
kendo - jQuery-based UI toolkit with 40+ basic open-source widgets, plus commercial professional widgets (grids, trees, charts etc.). Responsive&mobile support. Works with Bootstrap and AngularJS. Modern, with Material Design themes. The documentation is available on GitHub, which has enabled numerous contributions from users (4500+ commits, 500+ PRs as of Jan 2015).
Well-supported commercially, claiming millions of developers, and part of a large family of developer tools. Telerik has received many accolades, is a multi-national company (Bulgaria, US), was acquired by Progress Software, and is a thought leader.
A Kendo UI Professional developer license costs $700 and posting access to most forums is conditioned upon having a license or being in the trial period.
The desktop themes are rather lackluster, but the Fiori design for web and mobile looks clean and neat.
Polymer, a Web Components polyfill, plus Polymer Paper, Google's implementation of the Material design. Aimed at web and mobile apps. Doesn't have advanced widgets like trees or even grids but the controls it provides are mobile-first and responsive. Used by many big players, e.g. IBM or USA Today.
Ant Design claims it is "a design language for background applications", influenced by "nature" and helping designers "create low-entropy atmosphere for developer team". That's probably a poor translation from Chinese for "UI components for enterprise web applications". It's a React UI library written in TypeScript, with many components, from simple (buttons, cards) to advanced (autocomplete, calendar, tag input, table).
The project was born in China, is popular with Chinese companies, and parts of the documentation are available only in Chinese. Quite popular on GitHub, yet it makes the mistake of splitting the community into Chinese and English chat rooms. The design looks Material-ish, but fonts are small and the information looks lost in a see of whitespace.
Mobile themes look modern but desktop themes look old (gradients).
jQuery UI - easy to pick up; looks a bit dated; lacks advanced widgets. Of course, you can combine it with independent widgets for particular needs, e.g. trees or other UI components, but the same can be said for any other framework.
angular + Angular UI. While Angular is backed by Google, it's being radically revamped in the upcoming 2.0 version, and "users will need to get to grips with a new kind of architecture. It's also been confirmed that there will be no migration path from Angular 1.X to 2.0". Moreover, the consensus seems to be that Angular 2 won't really be ready for use until a year or two from now. Angular UI has relatively few widgets (no trees, for example).
DojoToolkit and their powerful Dijit set of widgets. Completely open-sourced and actively developed on GitHub, but development is now (Nov 2018) focused on the new dojo.io framework, which has very few basic widgets. BSD/AFL license. Development started in 2004 and the Dojo Foundation is being sponsored by IBM, Google, and others - see Wikipedia. 7500 questions here on SO.
Themes look desktop-oriented and dated - see the theme tester in dijit. The official theme previewer is broken and only shows "Claro". A Bootstrap theme exists, which looks a lot like Bootstrap, but doesn't use Bootstrap classes. In Jan 2015, I started a thread on building a Material Design theme for Dojo, which got quite popular within the first hours. However, there are questions regarding building that theme for the current Dojo 1.10 vs. the next Dojo 2.0. The response to that thread shows an active and wide community, covering many time zones.
Unfortunately, Dojo has fallen out of popularity and fewer companies appear to use it, despite having (had?) a strong foothold in the enterprise world. In 2009-2012, its learning curve was steep and the documentation needed improvements; while the documentation has substantially improved, it's unclear how easy it is to pick up Dojo nowadays.
With a Material Design theme, Dojo (2.0?) might be the killer UI components framework.
Mochaui, MooTools UI Library User Interface Library. <300 GitHub stars.
CrossUI - cross-browser JS framework to develop and package the exactly same code and UI into Web Apps, Native Desktop Apps (Windows, OS X, Linux) and Mobile Apps (iOS, Android, Windows Phone, BlackBerry). Open sourced LGPL3. Featured RAD tool (form builder etc.). The UI looks desktop-, not web-oriented. Actively developed, small community. No presence on GitHub.
ZinoUI - simple widgets. The DataTable, for instance, doesn't even support sorting.
CxJS - commercial JS framework based on React, Babel and webpack offering form elements, form validation, advanced grid control, navigational elements, tooltips, overlays, charts, routing, layout support, themes, culture dependent formatting and more.
SproutCore - developed by Apple for web applications with native performance, handling large data sets on the client. Powers iCloud.com. Not intended for widgets.
Wakanda Application Framework (datasource layer + browser-based interface widgets) that helps with browser and device compatibility across desktop and mobile
Backbase - portal software
Shiny - front-end library on top R, with visualization, layout and control widgets
ZKOSS: Java+jQuery+Bootstrap framework for building enterprise web and mobile apps.
These libraries don't implement complex widgets such as tables with sorting/filtering, autocompletes, or trees.
UI Kit - similar to Bootstrap, with fewer widgets, but with official off-canvas.
Using the canvas elements allows for complete control over the UI, and great cross-browser compatibility, but comes at the cost of missing native browser functionality, e.g. page search via Ctrl/Cmd+F.
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