Rounding in Javascript toFixed() method [duplicate]

I have known that the toFixed() method in javascript converts a number into a string, keeping a specified number of decimals, just like the code shown below, which sets the number of digits after the decimal point to be 2 .

My question is: Whether the number is rounded when necessary. As in the code below, I would convert the number: 0.075. I think rounding 0.075 should be 0.08 as "5 go up". However, it looks weird in the first case below. So I was confused.

var a=0.25*0.3;
var res1 = a.toFixed(2);
//Output: a is 0.07 (Is there something wrong?)

var b=0.025*3;
var res2= b.toFixed(2);
//Output?b is 0.08

I have known the problem could be solved by using Math.js. However, I was just wondering the reason of the problem? Is a matter of toFixed() method or a matter of data types in javascript.



As stated in the docs, toFixed() does round when necessary. The rounding behavior is to round in the range -.5 < x <= +.5 of the digit.

The strange behavior you're observing is consistent with the note in the docs linked above:

Floating point numbers cannot represent all decimals precisely in binary which can lead to unexpected results such as 0.1 + 0.2 === 0.3 returning false .

In other words, this is a classic case of floating point precision loss - a problem you'll encounter in virtually any language. If you observe the full outputs of a and b you'll see that a == 0.075 and b == 0.07500000000000001 due to floating point precision - and thus given these values it is consistent with the defined rounding behavior to round a to .07 and b to .08.


The problem you are encountering is not specific to JavaScript, it is common to computing in general.

Both these arithmetic calculations have the same result – 0.075:

  • 0.25 * 0.3 = 0.075
  • 0.025 * 3 = 0.075

This is using the decimal number system commonly used.

Computers, at their core, however, don't use the decimal system, but binary – everything is based on 0 and 1.

Because of this, they actually have a hard time getting the calculation above right. JavaScript and other programming languages have to approximate the result, giving you this:

  • 0.25 * 0.3 = 0.75
  • 0.025 * 3 = 0.07500000000000001

You can now see why toFixed returns different results:

  • 0.75.toFixed(2) = 0.07
  • 0.07500000000000001.toFixed(2) = 0.08


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