How do I re-trigger a WebKit CSS animation via JavaScript?

So, I've got this -webkit-animation rule:

@-webkit-keyframes shake {
    0% {
        left: 0;
    }
    25% {
        left: 12px;
    }
    50% {
        left: 0;
    }
    75% {
        left: -12px;
    }
    100% {
        left:0;
    }
}

And some CSS defining some of the animation rules on my box:

#box{
    -webkit-animation-duration: .02s;
    -webkit-animation-iteration-count: 10;
    -webkit-animation-timing-function: linear;
}

I can shake the #box like this:

document.getElementById("box").style.webkitAnimationName = "shake";

But I can't shake it again later.

This only shakes the box once:

someElem.onclick = function(){
    document.getElementById("box").style.webkitAnimationName = "shake";
}

How can I re-trigger a CSS animation via JavaScript without using timeouts or multiple animations?

Answers:

Answer

You have to first remove the animation, then add it again. Eg:

document.getElementById("box").style.webkitAnimationName = "";
setTimeout(function ()
{
    document.getElementById("box").style.webkitAnimationName = "shake";
}, 0);

To do this without setTimeout remove the animation during onmousedown, and add it during onclick:

someElem.onmousedown = function()
{
    document.getElementById("box").style.webkitAnimationName = "";
}
someElem.onclick = function()
{
    document.getElementById("box").style.webkitAnimationName = "shake";
}
Answer

A simple but effective alternative:

HTML:

<div id="box"></div>
<button id="shake-the-box">Shake it!</button>?

css:

#box{
    background: blue;
    margin:30px;
    height:50px;
    width:50px;
    position:relative;
    -moz-animation:shake .2s 0 linear 1; 
    -webkit-animation:shake .2s 0 linear 1; 
}
#box.trigger{
    display:table;
}
@-webkit-keyframes shake {
    0% {
        left: 0;
    }
    25% {
        left: 12px;
    }
    50% {
        left: 0;
    }
    75% {
        left: -12px;
    }
    100% {
        left:0;
    }
}
@-moz-keyframes shake {
    0% {
        left: 0;
    }
    25% {
        left: 12px;
    }
    50% {
        left: 0;
    }
    75% {
        left: -12px;
    }
    100% {
        left:0;
    }
}?

jQuery:

$('#shake-the-box').click(function(){

  $('#box').toggleClass('trigger');

});?

Demo:
http://jsfiddle.net/5832R/2/

Issues:
I don't know if it works on Firefox, because the animation doesn't seem to work there...

Answer

Following the suggestion from https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/CSS_Animations/Tips, remove and then add the animation class, using requestAnimationFrame to ensure that the rendering engine processes both changes. I think this is cleaner than using setTimeout, and handles replaying an animation before the previous play has completed.

$('#shake-the-box').click(function(){   
  $('#box').removeClass("trigger");
  window.requestAnimationFrame(function(time) {
  window.requestAnimationFrame(function(time) {
      $('#box').addClass("trigger");
    });
    });    

});

http://jsfiddle.net/gcmwyr14/5/

Answer

Reset the value first. Use reflow to apply the change without using timeout:

function shake() {
  var box = document.getElementById("box");
  box.style.animationName = null;
  box.offsetHeight; /* trigger reflow */
  box.style.animationName = "shake";
}
@keyframes shake {
    0% { left: 0; }
   25% { left: 12px; }
   50% { left: 0; }
   75% { left: -12px; }
  100% { left: 0; }
}

#box {
    position: absolute;
    width: 75px; height: 75px;
    background-color: black;
    animation-duration: .02s;
    animation-iteration-count: 10;
    animation-timing-function: linear;
}

button {
    position: absolute;
    top: 100px;
}
<div id="box"></div>
<button onclick="shake()">Shake</button>

In contrast to the accepted answer that recommends animationEnd, this method resets the animation even when it's still in progress. This might be or might be not what you want.


An alternative would be to create a duplicate @keyframes animation and switch between the two:

function shake() {
  var box = document.getElementById("box");
  if (box.style.animationName === "shake")
      box.style.animationName = "shake2";
  else
      box.style.animationName = "shake";
}
@keyframes shake {
    0% { left: 0; }
   25% { left: 12px; }
   50% { left: 0; }
   75% { left: -12px; }
  100% { left: 0; }
}

@keyframes shake2 {
    0% { left: 0; }
   25% { left: 12px; }
   50% { left: 0; }
   75% { left: -12px; }
  100% { left: 0; }
}

#box {
    position: absolute;
    width: 75px; height: 75px;
    background-color: black;
    animation-duration: .02s;
    animation-iteration-count: 10;
    animation-timing-function: linear;
}

button {
    position: absolute;
    top: 100px;
}
<div id="box"></div>
<button onclick="shake()">Shake</button>

Answer

Is there an issue with using setTimeout() to remove the class and then read it 5ms later?

svg.classList.remove('animate');
setTimeout(function() {
  svg.classList.add('animate');
}, 10);
Answer

With your javascript, you could also add (and then remove) a CSS class in which the animation is declared. See what I mean ?

#cart p.anim {
  animation: demo 1s 1; // Fire once the "demo" animation which last 1s
}
Answer

1) Add animation name to the #box.trigger in css

#box.trigger{
    display:table;
    animation:shake .2s 0 linear 1;
    -moz-animation:shake .2s 0 linear 1; 
    -webkit-animation:shake .2s 0 linear 1;
}

2) In java-script you cannot remove the class trigger.

3) Remove the the class name by using setTimeOut method.

$(document).ready(function(){
    $('#shake-the-box').click(function(){

    $('#box').addClass('trigger');
    setTimeout(function(){
        $("#box").removeClass("trigger")},500)        
    });
}); 

4) Here is the DEMO.

Answer

I found the answer based on the source code and examples at the CSS3 transition tests github page.

Basically, CSS animations have an animationEnd event that is fired when the animation completes.

For webkit browsers this event is named “webkitAnimationEnd”. So, in order to reset an animation after it has been called you need to add an event-listener to the element for the animationEnd event.

In plain vanilla javascript:

var element = document.getElementById('box');

element.addEventListener('webkitAnimationEnd', function(){
    this.style.webkitAnimationName = '';
}, false);

document.getElementById('button').onclick = function(){
    element.style.webkitAnimationName = 'shake';
    // you'll probably want to preventDefault here.
};

and with jQuery:

var $element = $('#box').bind('webkitAnimationEnd', function(){
    this.style.webkitAnimationName = '';
});

$('#button').click(function(){
    $element.css('webkitAnimationName', 'shake');
    // you'll probably want to preventDefault here.
});

The source code for CSS3 transition tests (mentioned above) has the following support object which may be helpful for cross-browser CSS transitions, transforms, and animations.

Here is the support code (re-formatted):

var css3AnimationSupport = (function(){
    var div = document.createElement('div'),
        divStyle = div.style,
        // you'll probably be better off using a `switch` instead of theses ternary ops
        support = {
            transition:
                divStyle.MozTransition     === ''? {name: 'MozTransition'   , end: 'transitionend'} :
                // Will ms add a prefix to the transitionend event?
                (divStyle.MsTransition     === ''? {name: 'MsTransition'    , end: 'msTransitionend'} :
                (divStyle.WebkitTransition === ''? {name: 'WebkitTransition', end: 'webkitTransitionEnd'} :
                (divStyle.OTransition      === ''? {name: 'OTransition'     , end: 'oTransitionEnd'} :
                (divStyle.transition       === ''? {name: 'transition'      , end: 'transitionend'} :
                false)))),
            transform:
                divStyle.MozTransform     === '' ? 'MozTransform'    :
                (divStyle.MsTransform     === '' ? 'MsTransform'     :
                (divStyle.WebkitTransform === '' ? 'WebkitTransform' : 
                (divStyle.OTransform      === '' ? 'OTransform'      :
                (divStyle.transform       === '' ? 'transform'       :
                false))))
            //, animation: ...
        };
    support.transformProp = support.transform.name.replace(/([A-Z])/g, '-$1').toLowerCase();
    return support;
}());

I have not added the code to detect “animation” properties for each browser. I’ve made this answer “community wiki” and leave that to you. :-)

Answer

Clone works pretty good on paused Karaoke: On IE11 had to force a reflow (R. Krupi?ski's shorter version).

$('#lyrics').text("Why does it hurt when I pee?");
changeLyrics('3s');  

function changeLyrics(sec) {
  str = 'lyrics '+ sec + ' linear 1';
  $('#lyrics').css( 'animation', str);
  $('#lyrics').css( 'animation-play-state', 'running' );
  $('#lyrics').replaceWith($('#lyrics').clone(true)); 
}

or you can use the following:

function resetAnimation(elm) {
  $('#'+elm).replaceWith($('#'+elm).clone(true)); 
}

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