I have to write a short program that sends data to a microcontroller over the serial port that has a GUI and is cross-platform compatible, and I really don't want to use Java's Swing.
There's a cross platform plugin for serial port communication called jUART.
This is an old question, but in case this helps anyone else, Chrome Apps have access to a serial API - http://developer.chrome.com/apps/serial.html - which might help.
It's Chrome specific (obviously..), but Chrome is available cross-platform so might answer the question.
If you have a DLL library (this includes e.g. most Windows APIs) that allows you to communicate over serial port you can invoke it from Firefox chrome code (or content code with universalxpconnect privileges) by using ctypes.
Another way is to create a POJO service.
I'd recommend wx-widgets for the task.
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