Adding UTF-8 BOM to string/Blob

I need to add a UTF-8 byte-order-mark to generated text data on client side. How do I do that?

Using new Blob(['\xEF\xBB\xBF' + content]) yields '"my data"', of course.

Neither did '\uBBEF\x22BF' work (with '\x22' == '"' being the next character in content).

Is it possible to prepend the UTF-8 BOM in JavaScript to a generated text?

Yes, I really do need the UTF-8 BOM in this case.



I'm editing my original answer. The above answer really demands elaboration as this is a convoluted solution by Node.js.

The short answer is, yes, this code works.

The long answer is, no, FEFF is not the byte order mark for utf-8. Apparently node took some sort of shortcut for writing encodings within files. FEFF is the UTF16 Little Endian encoding as can be seen within the Byte Order Mark wikipedia article and can also be viewed within a binary text editor after having written the file. I've verified this is the case.

Apparently, Node.JS uses the \ufeff to signify any number of encoding. It takes the \ufeff marker and converts it into the correct byte order mark based on the 3rd options parameter of writeFile. The 3rd parameter you pass in the encoding string. Node.JS takes this encoding string and converts the \ufeff fixed byte encoding into any one of the actual encoding's byte order marks.

UTF-8 Example:

fs.writeFile(someFilename, '\ufeff' + html, { encoding: 'utf8' }, function(err) {
   /* The actual byte order mark written to the file is EF BB BF */

UTF-16 Little Endian Example:

fs.writeFile(someFilename, '\ufeff' + html, { encoding: 'utf16le' }, function(err) {
   /* The actual byte order mark written to the file is FF FE */

So, as you can see the \ufeff is simply a marker stating any number of resulting encodings. The actual encoding that makes it into the file is directly dependent the encoding option specified. The marker used within the string is really irrelevant to what gets written to the file.

I suspect that the reasoning behind this is because they chose not to write byte order marks and the 3 byte mark for UTF-8 isn't easily encoded into the javascript string to be written to disk. So, they used the UTF16LE BOM as a placeholder mark within the string which gets substituted at write-time.


Prepend \ufeff to the string. See

See discussion between @jeff-fischer and @casey for details on UTF-8 and UTF-16 and the BOM. What actually makes the above work is that the string \ufeff is always used to represent the BOM, regardless of UTF-8 or UTF-16 being used.

See p.36 in The Unicode Standard 5.0, Chapter 2 for a detailed explanation. A quote from that page

The endian order entry for UTF-8 in Table 2-4 is marked N/A because UTF-8 code units are 8 bits in size, and the usual machine issues of endian order for larger code units do not apply. The serialized order of the bytes must not depart from the order defined by the UTF- 8 encoding form. Use of a BOM is neither required nor recommended for UTF-8, but may be encountered in contexts where UTF-8 data is converted from other encoding forms that use a BOM or where the BOM is used as a UTF-8 signature.


I had the same issue and this is the solution I came up with:

var blob = new Blob([
                    new Uint8Array([0xEF, 0xBB, 0xBF]), // UTF-8 BOM
                    ... // Remaining data
                    { type: "text/plain;charset=utf-8" });

Using Uint8Array prevents the browser from converting those bytes into string (tested on Chrome and Firefox).

You should replace text/plain with your desired MIME type.


This is my solution:

var blob = new Blob(["\uFEFF"+csv], {
type: 'text/csv; charset=utf-18'


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